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Urban Construction
10/8/2004 16:20

Investment in Urban Construction


Starting from the beginning of 1990s, the city has focused its urban construction on developing functional and hub infrastructures. For the 1991-2003 period, Shanghai invested a total of more than 479.88 billion yuan in its urban construction projects, representing an average annual growth of 27.1% and accounting for 23.7% of the total investment in the fixed assets in the same period. Featuring massive investment, high speed and large scale, Shanghai's endeavor in upgrading local infrastructure facilities has not only changed the city's skyline, but also markedly improved its investment environment. Shanghai has become taller and more beautiful than ever before.

Investment in City Infrastructure

Infrastructure Investment (100 million yuan)

Percentage in Total Fixed Asset Investment (%)

1990   47.22       20.8

1991   61.38       23.8

1992   84.35       23.6

1993   167.94 25.7

1994   238.16 21.2

1995   273.78 17.1

1996   378.78 19.4

1997   412.85 20.9

1988   531.38 29.3

1999   501.39 29.2

2000   451.35 26.7

2001   510.78 25.7

2002   583.49 26.7

2003   604.62 24.7




Key Urban Construction Projects


According to its overall urban development plans and goals, the city has speed up the key urban construction projects through scientific coordination. It has already completed the construction of the Nanpu Bridge, the Yangpu Bridge, the Elevated Inner-Ring Road, the Elevated Yan'an Road, Metro Line 1, Metro Line 2, the first phase of the Pearl Light Rail, the maglev line, the first phase of the Pudong International Airport, and the Min-Xin line of Metro V. In 2003, Shanghai invested 62.152 billion yuan into key urban construction projects. In the year, it had completed or initially completed 25 key projects, including the construction of the second phase of the Hu-Min Elevated Road, widening of Dalian Road and the Zhuyuan Waste Water Treatment Plant. The city had also completed the construction of the Outer-Ring-Road tunnel, the Lupu Bridge and the Dalian Road tunnel. As a result, the traffic lanes connecting Puxi downtown area and Pudong had increased from 26 to 44, greatly alleviating the congestion of crossing the Huangpu River traffic.

* Nanpu Bridge    The 8,346-meter-long bridge has an under-clearance of 46 meters, thus allowing ships with a tonnage of 55,000 to pass under it. As a cable-stayed bridge, its main bridge is 846 meters long and 30.35 meters wide, divided into six lanes. The approaches have a combined length of 7,500 meters and the West Shanghai spiral approach is 3,754 meters long. The bridge called a total investment of 820 million yuan and was completed and opened to traffic on December 1, 1991. The bridge spans the Huangpu River like a flying dragon and it has helped the locals to make their dream of "having a bridge across the Huangpu River" come true.


City Infrastructure Facilities

City Infrastructure Facilities

Unit    1990    1995   2000   2003

Waterworks production capacity

10,000 tons/day    462    823 1048   1064

Length of water pipeline

kilometer    3483  10647  15943

Length of natural gas pipeline

kilometer    #    #    1742.4 #

Natural gas user

10,000 households    #    #   38.1   87.5

Length of city roads

kilometer    1631    3008     6641   #

Area of city roads

10,000 sqm    1787    3434 8147   #

Length of sewage pipeline

kilometer    1892    2536     3920   #

Sewage treatment capacity

10,000 tons/day    41    49   463 #

Urban green area

hectare    3570    6561    12601  #

    # Public green area    hectare    983    1793 4812   #


* Lupu Bridge    With a total length of 8.7 kilometers, the bridge starts from Luban Road in Puxi, spans the Huangpu River and reaches Jiyang Road in Pudong. Its main section is 3.9 kilometers long and the southern extension 4.8 kilometers. Its main bridge is a whole-steel structure and it flies across the


river with a 750-meter main arch. The main bridge has six traffic lanes and its approaches have four or six lanes. The bridge¡¯s under-clearance reaches 46 meters and it provides a water navigation lane of 340 meters wide. With a total investment of more than 2 billion yuan, the bridge was completed and open to traffic in 2003.


* Dalian Road Tunnel    Going across the Huangpu River underneath, the Dalian Road Tunnel starts from Dalian Road in Puxi in the north and reaches Dongfang Road in Pudong in the south. It parallels with the second phase of the Pearl Line Light Rail. It is consisted of a round tunnel section, the buried section, the approaches and the surface road section. The tunnel has four traffic lanes going two ways and each lane is 3.75 meters wide. The lane above-clearance is 4.5 meters. It is designed for a speed of 40 kilometers per hour. The section underneath the river is a duel-tube structure. The total construction line of the east tube is 2,566 meters long and that of the west one is 2,550 meters long. With a total investment of 1.56 billion yuan, the tunnel was completed and open to traffic in 2003.


* Network of Elevated Roads    The city's network of elevated roads consists of the Elevated Inner-Ring Road, the Elevated South-North Road, and the Elevated Yan'an Road. The Elevated Inner-Ring Road goes along the circular Zhongshan Road and links up the two sides along the Huangpu River through the Nanpu Bridge and the Yangpu Bridge. With a total length of 48 kilometers, the Puxi section winds for 29.2 kilomet


ers and is all elevated road, while the Pudong section extends about 8 kilometers and is mostly surface road. The Elevated South-North Road goes across the city center, winding through Zhabei, Jing'an, Huangpu and Luwan districts. With a total length of 8.45 kilometers, it has six lanes. The Elevated Yan'an Road starts from the Zhongshan Road E1 in the east and reaches the Hongqiao Airport in the west. With a total length of 14.8 kilometers, it connects with the other two elevated roads to form an elevated road network in the city center.


* Rail Network    The city has already completed the first phase of Metro Line 1, Metro Line 2 and the Pear Line Light Rail. An urban rail network has taken its initial shape. With a total length of 21.39 kilometers, the Metro Line 1 goes from Xinzhuang to the Shanghai Railway Station, with 17 stops. Traveling at a speed limit of 80 kilometer/hour, it takes about 33 minutes to ride the whole line. The Metro Line 2 is the east-west artery of the rail network. With a total length of 27.03 kilometers, it goes from the Hongqiao Airport to Longdong Road E. in Pudong. It has 17 stops. Its first phase, winding from Zhongshan Park in Puxi to Longdong Road in Pudong, is 16.43 kilometers long and has 12 stops. It was completed and put into operation in July 2000.

The first phase of the Pear Line Light Rail, the first of its kind in China, extends from Caohejing in southwest of the city to Jiangwan Town in the northeast. With a total length of 25 kilometers, sections of 21.5 kilometers are elevated and the rest goes on surface. It has 19 stops and was put into operation in October 2000.



* The Xin-Min Line of Metro Line 5    The Xin-Min Line is an express artery for Minhang District to reach the cen

ter of the city. Starting from Xinzhuang Station in the north and reaching the Tianxing Road Station in Minhang development zone, the line extends 17 kilometers. Except for the 410 meters of the line going on the ground for stations, the rest is all elevated. The line

has 11 stations. With a total construction investment of more than 3 billion yuan, the line was completed and open to traffic in 2003.



* The First Phase of Pudong International Airport Covering a total area of 32 square kilometers, Pudong International Airport is about 30 kilometers away from the city's downtown area and about 40 kilometers from Hongqiao Airport. The first phase included the construction of a 4,000 meters long and 60 meters wide runway which can accommodate all kinds of large airplanes; a 102-meter-high control tower which is the highest in China and an lounge building with a construction area of 272,000 square meters. With a total of 28 boarding gates, the airport allows 18 large and 10 medium-sized passenger planes to land at the same time. The cargo transport station and the business building have a combined construction area of 49,000 square meters and the food distribution center occupies an area of 26,300 square meters. The main road leading to the airport is divided into eight lanes. With an investment of 13 billion yuan, the first phase has a designed annual capacity of handling 20 million passengers and 750,000 tons of cargo. It was open to traffic in October 1999.


* Century Boulevard The 4.2-kilometer Century Boulevard is an axis avenue of the Pudong New Area. At 100 meters, the avenue is Shanghai's widest. Eight traffic lanes will occupy 31 meters of the width. The rest will be given over to sidewalks and landscaping. Eight botanical gardens will be built on the northern sidewalk, which is 44.5 meters wide. The southern side is 24.5 meters wide. The gardens will feature an extensive array of flora, including white magnolias -- the city flower, camellias, cypress and willow. The southern sidewalk will mainly be dressed in camphor trees. With a total investment of 1.35 billion yuan, the boulevard opened to traffic at the beginning of 2000.


* Exemplary Maglev Line    It is the first commercial maglev line in the world. It is also the first maglev line in China, which is designed for transportation, sightseeing and tour trips. This exemplary line starts from the southern side of the Longyang Road Station of Metro Line 2 in the west and ends at the eastern side of the terminal building of the first phase of the Pudong International Airport in the east. With a total length of 30 kilometers, the maglev train has a designed speed of 505 kilometers per hour and travels at a speed of 430 kilometers per hour. The train has nine cars and it takes a seven-minute ride to cover the whole line. It was put into trial operation on December 31, 2002.




* Hu-Qing-Ping Expressway   

This is part ofthe 318 State Expressway, which links up Jiangsu Province, Zhejiang Province and Shanghai Municipality. It is also an important section of the city's expressway network. The middle section of the Hu-Qing-Ping Expressway, with a total length of 28 kilometers, starts from Zhongchun Road in the east and ends at Zhufeng Highway in the west. Its designed speed is 120 kilometers per hour. Along this section, there are four flyovers: Jiasong, Waiqingsong, Tongsan and Zhufeng. With a total investment of 1.67 billion yuan, it was completed and open to traffic by the end of 2002.



* Shanghai Section of Tong-San State Expressway    This is north-south artery state expressway in the national highway plans of the Ministry of Communications. It links up Tongjiang City in Heilongjiang Province and Sanya City in Hainan Province. The Shanghai section starts from the Anting Flyover at the Hu-Ning Expressway and ends at the Qijiadun Wharf in Jinshan District, winding across Qingpu, Songjiang and Jinshan districts. With a length of 75 kilometers and a designed speed of 120 kilometers per hour, it has four lanes. This section was completed and open to traffic by the end of 2002.


* The Second Phase of Hu-Min Elevated Road    The second phase of Hu-Min Elevated Road is located in the southwestern area of the city. With a total length of 5.6 kilometers, it connects the first phase in the east and the Xinzhuang Flyover in the west. The standard section of the road is 25.5 meters wide, providing six traffic lanes in both ways. The ground road underneath has six motor lanes and two bike lanes. The road has four pairs of ramps connecting the ground along the whole line and seven ramps connecting Hongmei Flyover and the elevated road system of the city¡¯s second railway station, which will begin construction soon. The elevated road¡¯s structure is made of box girders with a curved section. As a result, the elevated road features soft lines and graceful shapes. With a total investment of 812 billion yuan, the project was completed and open to traffic in 2003.



Old City Areas Revamping

In 1990s, Shanghai launched a project to revamp 3.65 million square meters of dilapidated housing. After 10 years' efforts, the project was completed by the end of 2000. During the 1991-2003 period, the city dismantled 16.3565 million square meters of old housing and moved out xxx households. In 2003, the city built 101 model residential zones with better planning, design, construction and management.



Urban Environment Protection


Shanghai has made remarkable progress in pollution control and environment protection and the city's environment has greatly improved. In 2003, the city invested 19.153 billion yuan into environmental protection projects, accounting for 3.06% of its GDP. The city had launched a number of key water treatment projects, including the second phase of the comprehensive treatment of the Suzhou Creek and the third phase of waste water treatment. As a result, the water quality in the city had been further improved. The air quality in the city had also been improved. The average index of air-borne particles dropped 11% from the previous year and the content of sulfur dioxide and that of nitrogen dioxide remained at the same level, reaching the state-set standards for Grade II air quality. For more than 89% of the days in 2003, the city's air quality index reached Grade II or better.



Urban Greening

Efforts have been taken to plant more trees and grass in the city and as a result, Shanghai's green area has increased in the last few years. By the end of 2003, the city's areas of green, parks and gardens amounted to xxx hectares. Of the total, xxx hectares were public green areas. The average per capita green area reached 9.16 square meters in the city and the green area coverage reached 35.2% of the city's total territory. In recent years, the city had built more than 200 green areas, each covering a space of 3,000 square meters or more. Such green areas included the Yan'an Road C. Green, Taipingqiao Green, Huangxing Park, Daning Green, the Xujiahui Park, the third phase of the Square Park, the third phase of the Xujiahui Park and the 48-kilometer-long green belts circling the city. These green areas have largely improved the living and working environment of local residents.